Richard II

R2 I.i.1.1 
Enter King Richard and John of Gaunt, with other

R2 I.i.1.2 
nobles, including the Lord Marshal, and attendants



R2 I.i.1 
Old John of Gaunt, time-honoured Lancaster,

R2 I.i.2 
Hast thou according to thy oath and band
band (n.) 1 bond, obligation, tie

R2 I.i.3 
Brought hither Henry Hereford, thy bold son,

R2 I.i.4 
Here to make good the boisterous late appeal –
appeal (n.) accusation, charge of treason
boisterous (adj.) 1 violent, fierce, savage
late (adj.) 1 recent, not long past

R2 I.i.5 
Which then our leisure would not let us hear –

R2 I.i.6 
Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray?



R2 I.i.7 
I have, my liege.



R2 I.i.8 
Tell me, moreover, hast thou sounded him
sound (v.) 2 find out, ascertain, sound out

R2 I.i.9 
If he appeal the Duke on ancient malice,
ancient, aunchient (adj.) 1 long-established, long-standing
appeal (v.) 1 accuse, denounce, impeach
malice (n.) hostility, hatred, ill-will, enmity

R2 I.i.10 
Or worthily, as a good subject should,

R2 I.i.11 
On some known ground of treachery in him?



R2 I.i.12 
As near as I could sift him on that argument,
argument (n.) 3 subject, point, theme, target
sift (v.) 2 discover by examining, find out by questioning

R2 I.i.13 
On some apparent danger seen in him
apparent (adj.) 1 plainly visible, conspicuous, evident, obvious

R2 I.i.14 
Aimed at your highness; no inveterate malice.
inveterate (adj.) long-standing, deep-rooted
malice (n.) hostility, hatred, ill-will, enmity



R2 I.i.15.1 
Then call them to our presence.

R2 I.i.15 
Exit Attendant

R2 I.i.15.2 
                         Face to face,

R2 I.i.16 
And frowning brow to brow, ourselves will hear
brow (n.) 1 appearance, aspect, countenance

R2 I.i.17 
The accuser and the accused freely speak.

R2 I.i.18 
High-stomached are they both, and full of ire;
high-stomached (adj.) proud, haughty, stubborn

R2 I.i.19 
In rage, deaf as the sea, hasty as fire.

R2 I.i.20 
Enter Bolingbroke and Mowbray



R2 I.i.20 
Many years of happy days befall

R2 I.i.21 
My gracious sovereign, my most loving liege!



R2 I.i.22 
Each day still better other's happiness
still (adv.) 1 constantly, always, continually

R2 I.i.23 
Until the heavens, envying earth's good hap,
hap (n.) 1 fortune, lot, fate

R2 I.i.24 
Add an immortal title to your crown!



R2 I.i.25 
We thank you both. Yet one but flatters us,

R2 I.i.26 
As well appeareth by the cause you come,

R2 I.i.27 
Namely, to appeal each other of high treason.
appeal (v.) 1 accuse, denounce, impeach

R2 I.i.28 
Cousin of Hereford, what dost thou object

R2 I.i.29 
Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray?



R2 I.i.30 
First, heaven be the record to my speech!
record (n.) 2 witness, confirmation

R2 I.i.31 
In the devotion of a subject's love,

R2 I.i.32 
Tendering the precious safety of my prince,
tender (v.) 2 feel concern for, hold dear, care for

R2 I.i.33 
And free from other, misbegotten hate

R2 I.i.34 
Come I appellant to this princely presence.
appellant (n.) accuser [of treason], challenger, denouncer

R2 I.i.35 
Now, Thomas Mowbray, do I turn to thee;

R2 I.i.36 
And mark my greeting well, for what I speak
greeting (n.) address, speech , discourse
mark (v.) 1 note, pay attention [to], take notice [of]

R2 I.i.37 
My body shall make good upon this earth

R2 I.i.38 
Or my divine soul answer it in heaven.
divine (adj.) 1 immortal, eternal

R2 I.i.39 
Thou art a traitor and a miscreant,
miscreant (n.) 1 villain, wretch, rascal

R2 I.i.40 
Too good to be so, and too bad to live,
good (adj.) 9 high-ranking, highborn, distinguished

R2 I.i.41 
Since the more fair and crystal is the sky,
crystal (adj.) 1 clear, bright, transparent

R2 I.i.42 
The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly.

R2 I.i.43 
Once more, the more to aggravate the note,
note (n.) 12 reproach, stigma, mark of disgrace

R2 I.i.44 
With a foul traitor's name stuff I thy throat,

R2 I.i.45 
And wish – so please my sovereign – ere I move

R2 I.i.46 
What my tongue speaks my right-drawn sword may prove.
right-drawn (adj.) drawn in a rightful cause



R2 I.i.47 
Let not my cold words here accuse my zeal.
cold (adj.) 6 calm, cool, deliberate
zeal (n.) ardour, fervour; or: loyalty, devotion

R2 I.i.48 
'Tis not the trial of a woman's war,

R2 I.i.49 
The bitter clamour of two eager tongues,
eager (adj.) 2 sharp, cutting

R2 I.i.50 
Can arbitrate this cause betwixt us twain.

R2 I.i.51 
The blood is hot that must be cooled for this.

R2 I.i.52 
Yet can I not of such tame patience boast

R2 I.i.53 
As to be hushed, and naught at all to say.

R2 I.i.54 
First, the fair reverence of your highness curbs me
reverence (n.) 2 profound respect, esteem

R2 I.i.55 
From giving reins and spurs to my free speech,

R2 I.i.56 
Which else would post until it had returned
post (v.) 1 hasten, speed, ride fast

R2 I.i.57 
These terms of treason doubled down his throat.
double (v.) 1 repeat, reiterate

R2 I.i.58 
Setting aside his high blood's royalty,

R2 I.i.59 
And let him be no kinsman to my liege,

R2 I.i.60 
I do defy him, and I spit at him,

R2 I.i.61 
Call him a slanderous coward, and a villain;

R2 I.i.62 
Which to maintain I would allow him odds,

R2 I.i.63 
And meet him, were I tied to run afoot
tie (v.) 1 oblige, constrain, force

R2 I.i.64 
Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps,

R2 I.i.65 
Or any other ground inhabitable
inhabitable (adj.) uninhabitable, unlivable

R2 I.i.66 
Where ever Englishman durst set his foot.

R2 I.i.67 
Meantime, let this defend my loyalty:

R2 I.i.68 
By all my hopes, most falsely doth he lie.



R2 I.i.69 
(throws down his gage)
gage (n.) pledge, challenge [usually, a glove or gauntlet thrown down]

R2 I.i.69 
Pale, trembling coward, there I throw my gage,

R2 I.i.70 
Disclaiming here the kindred of the King,
disclaim (v.) disown, repudiate, renounce [connection with]

R2 I.i.71 
And lay aside my high blood's royalty,

R2 I.i.72 
Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to except.
except, except against (v.) 1 take exception to, object to, repudiate
reverence (n.) 2 profound respect, esteem

R2 I.i.73 
If guilty dread have left thee so much strength

R2 I.i.74 
As to take up mine honour's pawn, then stoop.

R2 I.i.75 
By that, and all the rites of knighthood else,

R2 I.i.76 
Will I make good against thee, arm to arm,

R2 I.i.77 
What I have spoke or thou canst worse devise.



R2 I.i.78 
(takes up the gage)

R2 I.i.78 
I take it up; and by that sword I swear

R2 I.i.79 
Which gently laid my knighthood on my shoulder,
gently (adv.) 1 like a gentleman, honourably, with dignity

R2 I.i.80 
I'll answer thee in any fair degree
answer (v.) 3 satisfy, discharge, requite
degree (n.) 4 measure, extent, amount

R2 I.i.81 
Or chivalrous design of knightly trial;

R2 I.i.82 
And when I mount, alive may I not light
light (v.) 2 dismount, descend, alight

R2 I.i.83 
If I be traitor or unjustly fight!



R2 I.i.84 
What doth our cousin lay to Mowbray's charge?
charge (n.) 5 responsibility, culpability
lay (v.) 2 attribute, ascribe, impute

R2 I.i.85 
It must be great that can inherit us
inherit (v.) 4 put in possession of, provide [with]

R2 I.i.86 
So much as of a thought of ill in him.
ill (n.) 1 wrong, injury, harm, evil



R2 I.i.87 
Look what I speak, my life shall prove it true:

R2 I.i.88 
That Mowbray hath received eight thousand nobles
noble (n.) 2 English gold coin, worth 6s. 8d [= c.??0.33]

R2 I.i.89 
In name of lendings for your highness' soldiers,
lending (n.) 2 (plural) advance of money to soldiers [in lieu of regular pay]

R2 I.i.90 
The which he hath detained for lewd employments,
detain (v.) keep back, withhold, retain
employment (n.) 3 use, purpose, end
lewd (adj.) 1 improper, unseemly

R2 I.i.91 
Like a false traitor and injurious villain.
false (adj.) 1 treacherous, traitorous, perfidious

R2 I.i.92 
Besides I say, and will in battle prove
battle (n.) 4 single combat, individual fight

R2 I.i.93 
Or here or elsewhere to the furthest verge

R2 I.i.94 
That ever was surveyed by English eye,

R2 I.i.95 
That all the treasons for these eighteen years

R2 I.i.96 
Complotted and contrived in this land
complot (v.) plot together, collude
contrive (v.) 1 scheme, plot, conspire

R2 I.i.97 
Fetch from false Mowbray, their first head and spring.
fetch (v.) 4 derive, stem

R2 I.i.98 
Further I say, and further will maintain

R2 I.i.99 
Upon his bad life to make all this good,

R2 I.i.100 
That he did plot the Duke of Gloucester's death,

R2 I.i.101 
Suggest his soon-believing adversaries,
suggest (v.) 1 tempt, prompt, incite

R2 I.i.102 
And consequently, like a traitor coward,
consequently (adv.) subsequently, later, then

R2 I.i.103 
Sluiced out his innocent soul through streams of blood;

R2 I.i.104 
Which blood, like sacrificing Abel's, cries

R2 I.i.105 
Even from the tongueless caverns of the earth
tongueless (adj.) dumb, silent, mute

R2 I.i.106 
To me for justice and rough chastisement.

R2 I.i.107 
And, by the glorious worth of my descent,

R2 I.i.108 
This arm shall do it, or this life be spent.



R2 I.i.109 
How high a pitch his resolution soars!
pitch (n.) 1 height [to which a bird of prey soars before swooping]

R2 I.i.110 
Thomas of Norfolk, what sayst thou to this?



R2 I.i.111 
O, let my sovereign turn away his face

R2 I.i.112 
And bid his ears a little while be deaf

R2 I.i.113 
Till I have told this slander of his blood
slander (n.) 1 dishonour, disgrace, disrepute

R2 I.i.114 
How God and good men hate so foul a liar!



R2 I.i.115 
Mowbray, impartial are our eyes and ears.

R2 I.i.116 
Were he my brother – nay, my kingdom's heir –

R2 I.i.117 
As he is but my father's brother's son,

R2 I.i.118 
Now by my sceptre's awe I make a vow
awe (n.) 1 reverence, respect, esteem

R2 I.i.119 
Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood

R2 I.i.120 
Should nothing privilege him, nor partialize
partialize (v.) make partial, bias, make one-sided

R2 I.i.121 
The unstooping firmness of my upright soul.

R2 I.i.122 
He is our subject, Mowbray. So art thou.

R2 I.i.123 
Free speech and fearless I to thee allow.



R2 I.i.124 
Then, Bolingbroke, as low as to thy heart

R2 I.i.125 
Through the false passage of thy throat thou liest!
false (adj.) 1 treacherous, traitorous, perfidious

R2 I.i.126 
Three parts of that receipt I had for Calais
receipt (n.) 4 sum received, amount obtained

R2 I.i.127 
Disbursed I duly to his highness' soldiers.

R2 I.i.128 
The other part reserved I by consent
reserve (v.) preserve, retain, keep

R2 I.i.129 
For that my sovereign liege was in my debt

R2 I.i.130 
Upon remainder of a dear account
account, accompt (n.) 2 reckoning, debt, sum owing
dear (adj.) 3 of great worth, valuable, precious
remainder (n.) 1 balance, amount remaining unpaid

R2 I.i.131 
Since last I went to France to fetch his queen.

R2 I.i.132 
Now swallow down that lie! For Gloucester's death,

R2 I.i.133 
I slew him not, but to my own disgrace

R2 I.i.134 
Neglected my sworn duty in that case.

R2 I.i.135 
(To John of Gaunt)

R2 I.i.135 
For you, my noble lord of Lancaster,

R2 I.i.136 
The honourable father to my foe,

R2 I.i.137 
Once did I lay an ambush for your life,

R2 I.i.138 
A trespass that doth vex my grieved soul.

R2 I.i.139 
But ere I last received the sacrament

R2 I.i.140 
I did confess it, and exactly begged
exactly (adv.) 2 expressly, with great propriety

R2 I.i.141 
Your grace's pardon; and I hope I had it.

R2 I.i.142 
This is my fault. As for the rest appealed,
appeal (v.) 2 allege, accuse, charge

R2 I.i.143 
It issues from the rancour of a villain,

R2 I.i.144 
A recreant and most degenerate traitor,
recreant (adj.) cowardly, faint-hearted, craven

R2 I.i.145 
Which in myself I boldly will defend,

R2 I.i.146 
And interchangeably hurl down my gage
gage (n.) pledge, challenge [usually, a glove or gauntlet thrown down]
interchangeably (adv.) in turn, in exchange, reciprocally

R2 I.i.147 
Upon this overweening traitor's foot,
overweening (adj.) arrogant, overambitious, high and mighty

R2 I.i.148 
To prove myself a loyal gentleman

R2 I.i.149 
Even in the best blood chambered in his bosom.
chamber (v.) enclose, lodge, contain

R2 I.i.150 
(He throws down his gage)

R2 I.i.150 
In haste whereof, most heartily I pray

R2 I.i.151 
Your highness to assign our trial day.



R2 I.i.152 
Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be ruled by me:

R2 I.i.153 
Let's purge this choler without letting blood.
choler (n.) anger, rage, wrath
purge (v.) 2 expel, get rid of, flush out

R2 I.i.154 
This we prescribe, though no physician;

R2 I.i.155 
Deep malice makes too deep incision.

R2 I.i.156 
Forget, forgive, conclude, and be agreed;
conclude (v.) 3 come to terms, reach accord [over]

R2 I.i.157 
Our doctors say this is no month to bleed.
doctor (n.) 2 learned man, scholar; or: astrologer, physician

R2 I.i.158 
(To John of Gaunt)

R2 I.i.158 
Good uncle, let this end where it begun.

R2 I.i.159 
We'll calm the Duke of Norfolk, you your son.



R2 I.i.160 
To be a make-peace shall become my age.
become (v.) 1 be fitting, befit, be appropriate to
make-peace (n.) peacemaker

R2 I.i.161 
Throw down, my son, the Duke of Norfolk's gage.
gage (n.) pledge, challenge [usually, a glove or gauntlet thrown down]



R2 I.i.162.1 
And, Norfolk, throw down his.



R2 I.i.162.2 
                         When, Harry, when?

R2 I.i.163 
Obedience bids I should not bid again.



R2 I.i.164 
Norfolk, throw down! We bid: there is no boot.
boot (n.) 2 alternative, choice, better way



R2 I.i.165 

R2 I.i.165 
Myself I throw, dread sovereign, at thy foot.

R2 I.i.166 
My life thou shalt command, but not my shame.

R2 I.i.167 
The one my duty owes, but my fair name,

R2 I.i.168 
Despite of death that lives upon my grave,

R2 I.i.169 
To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have.
dark (adj.) 2 unfavourable, malignant, evil

R2 I.i.170 
I am disgraced, impeached, and baffled here,
baffle (v.) 1 [of a knight] publicly disgrace, treat with infamy
impeach (v.) 1 accuse, charge, challenge

R2 I.i.171 
Pierced to the soul with slander's venomed spear,
venomed (adj.) poisoned, venomous

R2 I.i.172 
The which no balm can cure but his heart-blood

R2 I.i.173.1 
Which breathed this poison.
breathe (v.) 1 speak, utter, talk



R2 I.i.173.2 
                         Rage must be withstood.

R2 I.i.174 
Give me his gage. Lions make leopards tame.
gage (n.) pledge, challenge [usually, a glove or gauntlet thrown down]



R2 I.i.175 
Yea, but not change his spots. Take but my shame
gage (n.) pledge, challenge [usually, a glove or gauntlet thrown down]
shame (n.) 1 disgrace, dishonour, affront

R2 I.i.176 
And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord,

R2 I.i.177 
The purest treasure mortal times afford
mortal (adj.) 2 human, subject to death, characterized by mortality
time (n.) 3 lifetime, life

R2 I.i.178 
Is spotless reputation. That away,

R2 I.i.179 
Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay.

R2 I.i.180 
A jewel in a ten-times barred-up chest

R2 I.i.181 
Is a bold spirit in a loyal breast.

R2 I.i.182 
Mine honour is my life. Both grow in one.

R2 I.i.183 
Take honour from me, and my life is done.

R2 I.i.184 
Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try.
try (v.) 2 put to the test, test the goodness [of]

R2 I.i.185 
In that I live and for that will I die.



R2 I.i.186 
(to Bolingbroke)
gage (n.) pledge, challenge [usually, a glove or gauntlet thrown down]

R2 I.i.186 
Cousin, throw up your gage. Do you begin.



R2 I.i.187 
O God defend my soul from such deep sin!

R2 I.i.188 
Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's sight?
crest-fallen (adj.) humbled, abashed, shamed

R2 I.i.189 
Or with pale beggar-fear impeach my height
beggar-fear (n.) fear that a beggar would show
height (n.) 2 rank, high birth, high degree
impeach (v.) 2 discredit, disparage, call into question

R2 I.i.190 
Before this outdared dastard? Ere my tongue
dastard (n.) coward, sissy, runaway, traitor
outdared (adj.) overcome by daring, cowed, outbraved; or: excessively daring, brazen, unabashed

R2 I.i.191 
Shall wound my honour with such feeble wrong,

R2 I.i.192 
Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear
base (adj.) 1 dishonourable, low, unworthy
parle, parley (n.) 1 negotiation, meeting [between enemies under a truce, to discuss terms]

R2 I.i.193 
The slavish motive of recanting fear
motive (n.) 3 instrument, agent, moving organ
recanting (adj.) causing an action to be retracted, resulting in withdrawal

R2 I.i.194 
And spit it bleeding in his high disgrace

R2 I.i.195 
Where shame doth harbour, even in Mowbray's face.

R2 I.i.195 
Exit John of Gaunt



R2 I.i.196 
We were not born to sue, but to command;

R2 I.i.197 
Which since we cannot do to make you friends,

R2 I.i.198 
Be ready as your lives shall answer it

R2 I.i.199 
At Coventry upon Saint Lambert's day.

R2 I.i.200 
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate

R2 I.i.201 
The swelling difference of your settled hate.
settled (adj.) 4 deep-rooted, firmly implanted
swelling (adj.) 5 inflated with anger, feeling strong emotion

R2 I.i.202 
Since we cannot atone you, we shall see
atone (v.) 1 unite, join, reconcile

R2 I.i.203 
Justice design the victor's chivalry.
chivalry (n.) 1 knightly prowess, warlike distinction
design (v.) indicate, designate, mark out

R2 I.i.204 
Lord Marshal, command our officers-at-arms

R2 I.i.205 
Be ready to direct these home alarms.
alarm, alarum, 'larm, 'larum (n.) 3 disturbance, turbulence, trouble, loud noise

R2 I.i.205 

Next scene